### @kavishKAVISH GOYAL

Self Taught Machine Learning Engineer and Data Scientist.Love Data driven problem and AI,ML and DS.

**Handwriting Recognition:**

Recognizing handwritten text is a problem that can be traced back to the first automatic machines that needed to recognize individual characters in handwritten documents. Think about, for example, the ZIP codes on letters at the post office and the automation needed to recognize these five digits. Perfect recognition of these codes is necessary in order to sort mail automatically and efficiently.

To address this issue in Python, the *scikit-learn* library provides a good example to better understand this technique, the issues involved, and the possibility of making predictions.

The problem we are solving in this blog involves predicting a numeric value, and then reading and interpreting an image that uses a handwritten font. So even in this case, we will have an estimator with the task of learning through a fit() function, and once it has reached a degree of predictive capability (a model sufficiently valid), it will produce a prediction with the predict() function. Then we will discuss the training set and validation set, created this time from a series of images.

**The Digits Dataset**

The *scikit-learn* library provides numerous datasets that are useful for testing many problems of data analysis and prediction of the results. Also in this case there is a dataset of images called Digits.

This dataset consists of 1,797 images that are 8×8 pixels in size

Let’s start with importing the dataset from *scikit-learn:*

```
from sklearn import datasets ## importing datasets from sklearn
digits = datasets.load_digits() ### loading data from scikit_learn library
```

`print(digits.DESCR) ## getting information about the data`

The images of the handwritten digits are contained in a digits.images array. Each element of this array is an image that is represented by an 8×8 matrix of numerical values that correspond to grayscale from white, with a value of 0, to black, with the value 15.

```
digits.images[0]
array([[ 0., 0., 5., 13., 9., 1., 0., 0.],
[ 0., 0., 13., 15., 10., 15., 5., 0.],
[ 0., 3., 15., 2., 0., 11., 8., 0.],
[ 0., 4., 12., 0., 0., 8., 8., 0.],
[ 0., 5., 8., 0., 0., 9., 8., 0.],
[ 0., 4., 11., 0., 1., 12., 7., 0.],
[ 0., 2., 14., 5., 10., 12., 0., 0.],
[ 0., 0., 6., 13., 10., 0., 0., 0.]])
```

We can visually check the contents of this result using the *matplotlib* library.

```
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
%matplotlib inline
plt.imshow(digits.images[0], cmap=plt.cm.gray_r, interpolation='nearest') ## visualizing image of '0'
```

```
digits.target ## The numerical values represented by images, i.e. the targets
array([0, 1, 2, ..., 8, 9, 8])
digits.target.size ## total images
1797
```

The dataset is a training set consisting of 1,797 images.

The Digits data set of *scikit-learn* library provides numerous data-sets that are useful for testing many problems of data analysis and prediction of the results. Some Scientist claims that it predicts the digit accurately 95% of the times. Perform data Analysis to accept or reject this Hypothesis.

An estimator that is useful in this case is *sklearn.svm.SVC,* which uses the technique of Support Vector Classification (SVC).As it works with image datasets better compared to other machine learning algorithms.

Support vector machine is one of the simple algorithms that every machine learning expert should have used in his/her arsenal. The Support vector machine is highly preferred by many as it produces significant accuracy with less computation power. Support Vector Machine, abbreviated as SVM can be used for both regression and classification tasks. But, it is widely used in classification objectives.

**What is Support Vector Machine?**

`The objective of the support vector machine algorithm is to find a hyperplane in N-dimensional space(N — the number of features) that distinctly classify the data points.`

To separate the two classes of data points, there are many possible hyperplanes that could be chosen. Our objective is to find a plane that has the maximum margin, i.e the maximum distance between data points of both classes. Maximizing the margin distance provides some reinforcement so that future data points can be classified with more confidence.

**Hyperplanes and Support Vectors:**

Hyperplanes are decision boundaries that help classify the data points. Data points falling on either side of the hyperplane can be attributed to different classes. Also, the dimension of the hyperplane depends upon the number of features. If the number of input features is 2, then the hyperplane is just a line. If the number of input features is 3, then the hyperplane becomes a two-dimensional plane. It becomes difficult to imagine when the number of features exceeds 3.

Support vectors are data points that are closer to the hyperplane and influence the position and orientation of the hyperplane. Using these support vectors, we maximize the margin of the classifier. Deleting the support vectors will change the position of the hyperplane. These are the points that help us build our SVM.

In SVM, we take the output of the linear function and if that output is greater than 1, we identify it with one class and if the output is -1, we identify is with another class. Since the threshold values are changed to 1 and -1 in SVM, we obtain this reinforcement range of values([-1,1]) which acts as margin.

Cost Function and Gradient Updates:

In the SVM algorithm, we are looking to maximize the margin between the data points and the hyperplane. The loss function that helps maximize the margin is hinge loss.

` Hinge loss function`

The cost is 0 if the predicted value and the actual value are of the same sign. If they are not, we then calculate the loss value. We also add a regularization parameter to the cost function. The objective of the regularization parameter is to balance the margin maximization and loss. After adding the regularization parameter, the cost functions looks as below.

`Loss function for SVM`

Now that we have the loss function, we take partial derivatives with respect to the weights to find the gradients. Using the gradients, we can update our weights.

` Gradients`

When there is no misclassification, i.e our model correctly predicts the class of our data point, we only have to update the gradient from the regularization parameter.

`Gradient update when no misclassification`

When there is a misclassification, i.e our model makes a mistake on the prediction of the class of our data point, we include the loss along with the regularization parameter to perform gradient update.

`Gradient Update - MIsclassification`

Now let’s implement it using Python.

```
from sklearn import svm
svc = svm.SVC(gamma=0.001, C=100.)
```

once we have defined a predictive model, we must instruct it with a training set, which is a set of data in which we already know the belonging class.

Given the large number of elements contained in the Digits dataset, we shall certainly obtain a very effective model, i.e., one that’s capable of recognizing with good certainty the handwritten number.

This dataset contains 1,797 elements, and so you can consider the first 1,750 as a training set and will use the remaining as a validation set. We can see in detail a few of these remaining handwritten digits by using the *matplotlib* library:

```
plt.subplot(321)
plt.imshow(digits.images[1750], cmap=plt.cm.gray_r,
interpolation='nearest')
plt.subplot(322)
plt.imshow(digits.images[1751], cmap=plt.cm.gray_r,
interpolation='nearest')
```

```
plt.subplot(323)
plt.imshow(digits.images[1780], cmap=plt.cm.gray_r,
interpolation='nearest')
plt.subplot(324)
plt.imshow(digits.images[1784], cmap=plt.cm.gray_r,
interpolation='nearest')
plt.subplot(323)
plt.imshow(digits.images[1795], cmap=plt.cm.gray_r,
interpolation='nearest')
plt.subplot(324)
plt.imshow(digits.images[1796], cmap=plt.cm.gray_r,
interpolation='nearest')
```

## Training the model :

Now we can train the svc estimator that we have defined earlier on the training data.

```
svc.fit(digits.data[:1750], digits.target[:1750]) ## fitting on training set
SVC(C=100.0, gamma=0.001)
```

Now we have to test our estimator, making it interpret the validation set.

```
svc.predict(digits.data[1751:1796]) ## making prediction on validation set
array([2, 1, 7, 4, 6, 3, 1, 3, 9, 1, 7, 6, 8, 4, 3, 1, 4, 0, 5, 3, 6, 9,
6, 1, 7, 5, 4, 4, 7, 2, 8, 2, 2, 5, 7, 9, 5, 4, 8, 8, 4, 9, 0, 8,
9])
```

If we compare them with the actual digits, as follows:

```
digits.target[1751:1796]
array([2, 1, 7, 4, 6, 3, 1, 3, 9, 1, 7, 6, 8, 4, 3, 1, 4, 0, 5, 3, 6, 9,
6, 1, 7, 5, 4, 4, 7, 2, 8, 2, 2, 5, 7, 9, 5, 4, 8, 8, 4, 9, 0, 8,
9])
```

We can see that the svc estimator has learned correctly. It is able to recognize the handwritten digits, interpreting correctly all digits of the validation set.

In the above case, we have got 100% accurate predictions, but this may not be the case at all times.

We will be running for at least 3 cases, each case for the different range of training and validation sets.

## Case-1:

```
print(svc.fit(digits.data[:1790], digits.target[:1790])) ## fitting on training set
print(svc.predict(digits.data[1791:1796])) ## making prediction on validation set
digits.target[1791:1796]
outputs:
SVC(C=100.0, gamma=0.001)
[4 9 0 8 9]
array([4, 9, 0, 8, 9])
```

**Case_2:**

```
print(svc.fit(digits.data[:1700], digits.target[:1700])) ## fitting on training set
print(svc.predict(digits.data[1701:1796])) ## making prediction on validation set
digits.target[1701:1796]
outputs:
SVC(C=100.0, gamma=0.001)
[6 5 0 9 8 9 8 4 1 7 7 3 5 1 0 0 2 2 7 8 2 0 1 2 6 3 8 7 5 3 4 6 6 6 4 9 1
5 0 9 5 2 8 2 0 0 1 7 6 3 2 1 7 4 6 3 1 3 9 1 7 6 8 4 3 1 4 0 5 3 6 9 6 1
7 5 4 4 7 2 8 2 2 5 7 9 5 4 8 8 4 9 0 8 9]
array([6, 5, 0, 9, 8, 9, 8, 4, 1, 7, 7, 3, 5, 1, 0, 0, 2, 2, 7, 8, 2, 0,
1, 2, 6, 3, 3, 7, 3, 3, 4, 6, 6, 6, 4, 9, 1, 5, 0, 9, 5, 2, 8, 2,
0, 0, 1, 7, 6, 3, 2, 1, 7, 4, 6, 3, 1, 3, 9, 1, 7, 6, 8, 4, 3, 1,
4, 0, 5, 3, 6, 9, 6, 1, 7, 5, 4, 4, 7, 2, 8, 2, 2, 5, 7, 9, 5, 4,
8, 8, 4, 9, 0, 8, 9])
```

## Case_3:

We will take 80% of data as a training set and 20% as validation.

```
print(svc.fit(digits.data[:1438], digits.target[:1438])) ## fitting on training set
y_pred = svc.predict(digits.data[1438:1796]) ## making prediction on validation set
y_test = digits.target[1438:1796]
from sklearn.metrics import accuracy_score, classification_report
print(accuracy_score(y_test,y_pred))
print(classification_report(y_test,y_pred))
outputs:
0.9636871508379888
precision recall f1-score support
0 1.00 0.97 0.99 35
1 0.97 1.00 0.99 36
2 1.00 1.00 1.00 34
3 1.00 0.84 0.91 37
4 0.97 0.92 0.94 37
5 0.93 1.00 0.96 37
6 1.00 1.00 1.00 37
7 1.00 1.00 1.00 36
8 0.86 0.97 0.91 32
9 0.92 0.95 0.93 37
accuracy 0.96 358
macro avg 0.97 0.96 0.96 358
weighted avg 0.97 0.96 0.96 358
```

In all of the above cases, we have got 96.36% accurate predictions. That is quite a remarkable performance our model has given us.

I hope this blog is able to give you some insights about SVM. If you have any feedback/suggestions, feel free to reach me.

*I am thankful to mentors at **https://internship.suvenconsultants.com** for providing awesome problem statements and giving many of us a Coding Internship Experience. Thank you **www.suvenconsultants.com”*