How To Containerize Java Applications Without Docker Using Jib | Hacker Noon

@iashishAshish Choudhary

Programmer at Work

In this article we will learn about how to create docker or OCI complaint images without installing any docker client or using Dockerfile for our SpringBoot application. We will be doing all of this with help of Jib.

What is Jib?

Jib is Java containerizer from Google that lets Java developers build containers using the build tools like Maven, Gradle etc.

But that’s not all what is really interesting about Jib is the fact that you don’t need to know anything about installing docker, maintaining Dockerfile etc. As a developer you only care about the artifact(jar, war etc.) you are going to produce and you don’t have to deal with any of the docker nonsense(build/push etc.).

Wow this is really powerful!!! But how?

How to Jib?

With Jib you can containerized your Java applications in no time just by adding Maven or Gradle plugin to your pom.xml.or build.gradle file.It is that simple. We will be covering Maven first and in later post Gradle. Let’s get started then.

We will be using spring initializr to generate a working spring-boot project. Source code of our SpringBoot application is available here and it just prints Hello message when the image pushed via Jib and the image is run through docker.

Once we have setup ready with IDE we can proceed with next step.

Setting up Maven

                 <plugin>
                                <groupId>com.google.cloud.tools</groupId>
                                <artifactId>jib-maven-plugin</artifactId>
                                <version>2.6.0</version>
                                <configuration>
                                        <from>
                                                <image>gcr.io/distroless/java:11</image>
                                        </from>
                                        <to>
                                                <image>registry.hub.docker.com/hiashish/spring-boot-jib-image</image>
                                        </to>
                                </configuration>
                        </plugin>

For maven you can paste the above content in your pom.xml plugin section and you are good to go. But I will try to explain <from> and <image> tags here.

<from> Configures the base image to build your application on top of.

Typically you don’t need to provide <from> as by default it uses distroless java8 image. However I have used java11 so I have explicitly mention that here. Moreover depending upon your use case you may want to use a different base image.

<image > This refers to the target image that will pushed to the container registry.

I have used docker registry but you can use any of the cloud provider(ECS,GCR,ACR) container registry available.

To use further options with the plugin you can refer to the documentation.

Setting credentials for registry

In order to push an image we would need to add registry credentials to maven settings.xml. Since we are just doing a demo it’s ok to provide credentials this way but avoid using this approach as it is not secure at all. You may want to secure credentials as mentioned here.

        <server>
            <id>registry.hub.docker.com</id>
            <username>username</username>
            <password>password</password>
        </server>
    

Building an image

To build an image we can do it in following ways.

1. IDE

For example in IntelliJ you can just go to maven view of your project then go under Plugins>jib then right click and run maven build. You may want to create a IntelliJ run configuration for this which can run maven goals like clean, compile etc. then push your image.

2. Using command line

Just run below command to build an image of your application. Make sure you have maven installed.

mvn compile jib:build

It will compile, build and then push the image of your application to configured container registry.

Following is the output.

[email protected] springboot % mvn compile jib:build
[INFO] Scanning for projects…
[INFO]
[INFO] — — — — — — — — — — < com.example:spring-boot-jib > — — — — — — — — — — –
[INFO] Building springboot 0.0.1-SNAPSHOT
[INFO] — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — [ jar ] — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — –
[INFO]
[INFO] — — maven-resources-plugin:3.1.0:resources (default-resources) @ spring-boot-jib — –
[INFO] Using ‘UTF-8’ encoding to copy filtered resources.
[INFO] Copying 1 resource
[INFO] Copying 0 resource
[INFO]
[INFO] — — maven-compiler-plugin:3.8.1:compile (default-compile) @ spring-boot-jib — –
[INFO] Nothing to compile — all classes are up to date
[INFO]
[INFO] — — jib-maven-plugin:2.6.0:build (default-cli) @ spring-boot-jib — –
[WARNING] ‘mainClass’ configured in ‘maven-jar-plugin’ is not a valid Java class: ${start-class}
[INFO]
[INFO] Containerizing application to registry.hub.docker.com/hiashish/spring-boot-jib-image…
[WARNING] Base image ‘gcr.io/distroless/java:11’ does not use a specific image digest — build may not be reproducible
[INFO] Using credentials from Maven settings file for registry.hub.docker.com/hiashish/spring-boot-jib-image
[INFO] Using base image with digest: sha256:b25c7a4f771209c2899b6c8a24fda89612b5e55200ab14aa10428f60fd5ef1d1
[INFO]
[INFO] Executing tasks:
[INFO]
[INFO] Executing tasks:
[INFO]
[INFO] Executing tasks:
[INFO] [======= ] 25.0% complete
[INFO]
[INFO] Executing tasks:
[INFO] [======= ] 25.0% complete
[INFO] > pushing blob sha256:6508f436f385b3751366f90b6…
[INFO]
[INFO] Executing tasks:
[INFO] [======= ] 25.0% complete
[INFO] > pushing blob sha256:6508f436f385b3751366f90b6…
[INFO] > pushing blob sha256:c5e22041fc97b838b93a2e18d…
[INFO]
[INFO] Executing tasks:
[INFO] [======= ] 25.0% complete
[INFO] > pushing blob sha256:6508f436f385b3751366f90b6…
[INFO] > pushing blob sha256:c5e22041fc97b838b93a2e18d…
[INFO] > pushing blob sha256:b25902383f9ee26808b68ca62…
[INFO]
[INFO] Executing tasks:
[INFO] [======= ] 25.0% complete
[INFO] > pushing blob sha256:6508f436f385b3751366f90b6…
[INFO] > pushing blob sha256:c5e22041fc97b838b93a2e18d…
[INFO] > pushing blob sha256:b25902383f9ee26808b68ca62…
[INFO] > checking base image layer sha256:31eb28996804…
[INFO]
[INFO] Executing tasks:
[INFO] [======== ] 27.8% complete
[INFO] > pushing blob sha256:c5e22041fc97b838b93a2e18d…
[INFO] > pushing blob sha256:b25902383f9ee26808b68ca62…
[INFO] > checking base image layer sha256:31eb28996804…
[INFO]
[INFO] Executing tasks:
[INFO] [========= ] 30.6% complete
[INFO] > pushing blob sha256:c5e22041fc97b838b93a2e18d…
[INFO] > checking base image layer sha256:31eb28996804…
[INFO]
[INFO] Executing tasks:
[INFO] [========== ] 33.3% complete
[INFO] > checking base image layer sha256:31eb28996804…
[INFO]
[INFO] Executing tasks:
[INFO] [=========== ] 35.0% complete
[INFO]
[INFO] Executing tasks:
[INFO]
[INFO]
[INFO]
[INFO] Container entrypoint set to [java, -cp, /app/resources:/app/classes:/app/libs/*, com.jib.example.spring.SpringbootApplication]
[INFO]
[INFO] Built and pushed image as registry.hub.docker.com/hiashish/spring-boot-jib-image
[INFO] Executing tasks:
[INFO] [=========================== ] 91.7% complete
[INFO] > launching layer pushers
[INFO]
[INFO] — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — —
[INFO] BUILD SUCCESS
[INFO] — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — —
[INFO] Total time: 8.746 s
[INFO] Finished at: 2020–11–16T02:34:33+05:30
[INFO] — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — —

Running the image

We have successfully pushed image(image name:spring-boot-jib-image) to a docker registry. Now we can run the image using docker.

As you can see that our application is running inside a container. Now just run the curl command and you can see that we got a hello message from our spring-boot application.

Conclusion

In this article we have learned how we can containerize our Java applications without docker. Additionally with Jib you can build images using docker also but that’ not the X factor. Other benefits of using Jib for you Java applications include super easy to integrate, faster builds, reproducible builds, Backed by Google etc. You can go through this link to know about Jib benefits in detail.

Previously published at https://ashish-choudhary.medium.com/containerizing-springboot-application-with-jib-716daa3e0850

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