#### In-Depth Analysis

## Learn how tensorflow or pytorch implement optimization algorithms by using numpy and create beautiful animations using matplotlib

In this post, we will discuss how to implement different variants of gradient descent optimization technique and also visualize the working of the update rule for these variants using matplotlib. This is a follow-up to my previous post on optimization algorithms.

Citation Note: The content and the structure of this article is based on the deep learning lectures from One-Fourth Labs —

PadhAI.

Gradient Descent is one of the most commonly used optimization techniques to optimize neural networks. Gradient descent algorithm updates the parameters by moving in the direction opposite to the gradient of the objective function with respect to the network parameters.

### Implementation In Python Using Numpy

In the coding part, we will be covering the following topics.

**Sigmoid Neuron Class****Overall setup — What is the data, model, task****Plotting functions — 3D & contour plots****Individual algorithms and how they perform**

Individual Algorithms include,

**Batch Gradient Descent****Momentum GD****Nesterov Accelerated GD****Mini Batch and Stochastic GD****AdaGrad GD****RMSProp GD****Adam GD**

If you want to skip the theory part and get into the code right away,

Before we start implementing gradient descent, first we need to import the required libraries. We are importing `Axes3D`

from `mpl_toolkits.mplot3d`

provides some basic 3D plotting (scatter, surf, line, mesh) tools. Not the fastest or most feature complete 3D library out there, but it ships with Matplotlib. we are also importing `colors`

and `colormap(cm)`

from matplotlib. We would like to have animated plots to demonstrate how each optimization algorithm works, so we are importing `animation`

and `rc`

to make graphs look good. To display/render HTML content in-line in jupyter notebook import `HTML`

. Finally, import`numpy`

for computation purposes which does the most of our heavy lifting.

### Sigmoid Neuron Implementation

To implement the gradient descent optimization technique, we will take a simple case of the sigmoid neuron(logistic function) and see how different variants of gradient descent learns the parameters ‘**w**’ and ‘**b**’.

#### Sigmoid Neuron Recap

A sigmoid neuron is similar to the perceptron neuron, for every input `xi`

it has weight `wi`

associated with the input. The weights indicate the importance of the input in the decision-making process. The output from the sigmoid is not 0 or 1 like the perceptron model instead it is a real value between 0–1 which can be interpreted as a probability. The most commonly used sigmoid function is the logistic function, which has a characteristic of an “**S**” shaped curve.

#### Learning Algorithm

The objective of the learning algorithm is to determine the best possible values for the parameters (**w** and **b**), such that the overall loss (squared error loss) of the model is minimized as much as possible.

We initialize **w** and **b** randomly. We then iterate over all the observations in the data, for each observation find the corresponding predicted the outcome using the sigmoid function and compute the mean squared error loss. Based on the loss value, we will update the weights such that the overall loss of the model at the new parameters will be **less than the current loss** of the model.

To understand the math behind the gradient descent optimization technique, kindly go through my previous article on the sigmoid neuron learning algorithm — linked at the end of this article.

#### Sigmoid Neuron Class

Before we start analyzing different variants of gradient descent algorithm, We will build our model inside a class called *SN.*

In the class `SN`

we have 7 functions, I will walk you through these functions one by one and explain what they are doing.

#constructor

def __init__(self, w_init, b_init, algo):

self.w = w_init

self.b = b_init

self.w_h = []

self.b_h = []

self.e_h = []

self.algo = algo

The `__init__`

function (constructor function) helps to initialize the parameters of sigmoid neuron **w** weights and **b** biases. The function takes three arguments,

`w_init,b_init`

— These parameters take the initial values for the parameters ‘**w**’ and ‘**b**’ instead of setting parameters randomly, we are setting it to specific values. This allows us to understand how an algorithm performs by visualizing for different initial points. Some algorithms get stuck in local minima at some parameters.`algo`

— It tells which variant of gradient descent algorithm to use for finding the optimal parameters.

In this function, we are initializing the parameters and we have defined three new array variables suffixed with ‘_h’ denoting that they are history variables, to keep track of how weights (w_h), biases (b_h) and error (e_h) values are changing as the sigmoid neuron learns the parameters.

def sigmoid(self, x, w=None, b=None):

if w is None:

w = self.w

if b is None:

b = self.b

return 1. / (1. + np.exp(-(w*x + b)))

We have the`sigmoid`

function that takes input **x — **mandatory argument and computes the logistic function for the input along with the parameters. The function also takes two other optional arguments.

`w & b`

—By taking ‘**w**’ and ‘**b**’ as the parameters it helps us to calculate the value of the sigmoid function at specifically specified values of parameters. If these arguments are not passed, it will take the values of learned parameters to compute the logistic function.

def error(self, X, Y, w=None, b=None):

if w is None:

w = self.w

if b is None:

b = self.b

err = 0

for x, y in zip(X, Y):

err += 0.5 * (self.sigmoid(x, w, b) - y) ** 2

return err

Next, we have `error`

function that takes input **X** and **Y** as mandatory arguments and optional parameter arguments like in the `sigmoid`

function. In this function, we are iterating through each data point and computing the cumulative mean squared error between the actual feature value and predicted feature value using the sigmoid function. Like we have seen in the `sigmoid`

function, it has support for calculating the error at specified parameter values.

def grad_w(self, x, y, w=None, b=None):

.....

def grad_b(self, x, y, w=None, b=None):

.....

Next, we will define two functions `grad_w`

and `grad_b`

takes input ‘**x**’ and ‘**y**’ as mandatory arguments, which helps to compute the gradient of the sigmoid with respect to inputs for the parameters ‘**w**’ and ‘**b**’ respectively. Again we have two optional arguments that allow us to compute the gradient at specified parameter values.

def fit(self, X, Y, epochs=100, eta=0.01, gamma=0.9, mini_batch_size=100, eps=1e-8,beta=0.9, beta1=0.9, beta2=0.9):

self.w_h = []

.......

Next, we define the ‘fit’ method that takes inputs ‘**X**’, ‘**Y**’ and a bunch of other parameters. I will explain these parameters whenever it is being used for a particular variant of gradient descent algorithm. The function starts by initializing the history variables and setting the local input variables to store the input parameter data.

Then we have a bunch of different ‘if-else’ statements for each algorithm it supports. Depending on the algorithm we use to choose, we will implement the gradient descent in the `fit`

function. I will explain each of these implementations in detail in the later part of the article.

def append_log(self):

self.w_h.append(self.w)

self.b_h.append(self.b)

self.e_h.append(self.error(self.X, self.Y))

Finally, we have the`append_log`

function to store the value of parameters and loss function value for each epoch in each variant of gradient descent.

### Setting Up for Plotting

In this section, we will define some configuration parameters for simulating the gradient descent update rule using a simple 2D toy data set. We also define some functions to create and animate the 3D & 2D plots to visualize the working of update rule. This kind of setup helps us to run different experiments with different starting points, different hyperparameter settings and plot/animate update rule for different variants of the gradient descent.

First, we take a simple 2D toy data set that has two inputs and two outputs. In line 5, we define a string variable `algo`

that takes which type of algorithm we want to execute. We initialize the parameters ‘**w**’ and ‘**b**’ in Line 6 — 7 to indicate where the algorithm starts.

From line 9 — 12 we are setting the limits for the parameters, the range where sigmoid neuron searches for the best parameters within the specified range. These numbers are specifically chosen well to illustrate the working gradient descent update rule. Next, we are setting values of hyperparameters some variables will be specific to some algorithms, I will discuss them when we are discussing the implementation of algorithms. Finally, from line 19–22, we declared the variables required to animate or plot the update rule.

Once we set up our configuration parameters, we will initialize our *SN* class and then call the fit method using the configuration parameters. We also plot our three history variables to visualize how the parameters and loss function value varies across epochs.

### 3D & 2D Plotting Setup

To create a 3D plot first, we create a mesh grid by creating 256 equally spaced values between the minimum and maximum values of ‘**w**’ and ‘**b**’ as shown in line 2–5. Using the mesh grid will calculate the error (line 5) for these values by calling the `error`

function in our sigmoid class `SN`

. In line 8, we are creating an axis handle to create a 3D plot.

To create a 3D plot, we are creating a surface plot of the error with respect to weight and bias using `ax.plot_surface`

function by specifying how often we want to sample the points along with the data by setting `rstride`

and `cstride`

. Next, we are plotting the contour of the error with respect to weight and bias on top of the surface using `ax.contourf`

function by specifying error values as ‘Z’ direction (Line 9 — 10). In line 11–16, we are setting the labels for each axis and axis limits for all three dimensions. Because we are plotting the 3D plot, we need to define the viewpoint. In line 17–18 we are setting a viewpoint for our plot at an elevation of 25 degrees in the ‘z’ axis and at a distance of 12 units.

On top of our static 3D plot, we want to visualize what the algorithm is doing dynamically which is captured by our history variables for parameters and error function at every epoch of our algorithm. To create an animation of our gradient descent algorithm, we will use `animation.FuncAnimation`

function by passing our custom function `plot_animate_3d`

as one of the parameters and also specify the number of frames needed to create an animation. The function `plot_animate_3d`

updates the values of parameters and error value for the respective values of ‘w’ and ‘b’. In the same function at the line — 7, we are setting the text to show the error value at that particular epoch. Finally, to display the animation in-line we call the `rc`

function to render the HTML content inside the jupyter notebook.

Similar to the 3D plot, we can create a function to plot 2D contour plots.

### Algorithm Implementation

In this section, we will implement different variants of gradient descent algorithm and generate 3D & 2D animation plots.

### Vanilla Gradient Descent

Gradient descent algorithm updates the parameters by moving in the direction opposite to the gradient of the objective function with respect to the network parameters.

Parameter update rule will be given by,

for i in range(epochs):

dw, db = 0, 0

for x, y in zip(X, Y):

dw += self.grad_w(x, y)

db += self.grad_b(x, y)

self.w -= eta * dw / X.shape[0]

self.b -= eta * db / X.shape[0]

self.append_log()

In the batch gradient descent, we iterate over all the training data points and compute the cumulative sum of gradients for parameters ‘w’ and ‘b’. Then update the values of parameters based on the cumulative gradient value and the learning rate.

To execute the gradient descent algorithm change the configuration settings as shown below.

In the configuration settings, we are setting the variable `algo`

to ‘GD’ to indicate we want to execute the vanilla gradient descent algorithm in our sigmoid neuron to find the best parameter values. After we set up our configuration parameters, we will go ahead and execute the *SN* class ‘fit’ method to train sigmoid neuron on toy data.

The above plot shows how the history values of error, weight, and bias vary across different epochs while the algorithm is learning the best parameters. The important point to note from the graph is that during the initial epochs error value is hovering close to 0.5 but after 200 epochs the error values reaches almost zero.

If you want to plot 3D or 2D animation, you can set the boolean variables `plot_2d`

and `plot_3d`

. I will show how the 3D error surface would look like for corresponding values of ‘**w**’ and ‘**b**’. The objective of the learning algorithm is to move towards the deep blue color region where the error/loss is minimum.

To visualize what algorithm is doing dynamically, we can generate an animation by using the function `plot_animate_3d`

. As you play the animation, you can see the epoch number and the corresponding error value at that epoch.

If you want to slow down the animation, you can do that by clicking on the minus symbol in the video controls as shown in the above animation. Similarly, you can generate the animation for 2D contour plot to see how the algorithm is moving towards the global minima.

### Momentum-based Gradient Descent

In Momentum GD, we are moving with an exponential decaying cumulative average of previous gradients and current gradient.

The code for the Momentum GD is given below,

v_w, v_b = 0, 0

for i in range(epochs):

dw, db = 0, 0

for x, y in zip(X, Y):

dw += self.grad_w(x, y)

db += self.grad_b(x, y)

v_w = gamma * v_w + eta * dw

v_b = gamma * v_b + eta * db

self.w = self.w - v_w

self.b = self.b - v_b

self.append_log()

In Momentum based GD, we have included the history variable to keep track of the values of previous gradients. The variable gamma denotes the how much of momentum we need to impart to the algorithm. The variables `v_w`

and `v_b`

will be used to compute the movement of the gradient based on the history as well as the current gradient. At the end of each epoch, we are calling the `append_log`

function to store the history of parameters and loss function values.

To execute the Momentum GD for our sigmoid neuron, you need to make few modifications to the configuration settings as shown below,

X = np.asarray([0.5, 2.5])

Y = np.asarray([0.2, 0.9])

algo = 'Momentum'

w_init = -2

b_init = -2

w_min = -7

w_max = 5

b_min = -7

b_max = 5

epochs = 1000

mini_batch_size = 6

gamma = 0.9

eta = 1

animation_frames = 20

plot_2d = True

plot_3d = True

The variable `algo`

is set to ‘Momentum’ to indicate that we want to use the Momentum GD for finding the best parameters for our sigmoid neuron and another important change is the `gamma`

variable, which is used to control how much momentum we need to impart into the learning algorithm. Gamma value varies between 0–1. After we set up our configuration parameters, we will go ahead and execute the *SN* class ‘fit’ method to train sigmoid neuron on toy data.

From the plot, we can see that there were a lot of oscillations in the values of weight and bias terms because of the accumulated history Momentum GD oscillates in and out of minima.

### Nesterov Accelerated Gradient Descent

In Nesterov Accelerated Gradient Descent we are looking forward to seeing whether we are close to the minima or not before we take another step based on the current gradient value so that we can avoid the problem of overshooting.

The code for the Momentum GD is given below,

v_w, v_b = 0, 0

for i in range(epochs):

dw, db = 0, 0

v_w = gamma * v_w

v_b = gamma * v_b

for x, y in zip(X, Y):

dw += self.grad_w(x, y, self.w - v_w, self.b - v_b)

db += self.grad_b(x, y, self.w - v_w, self.b - v_b)

v_w = v_w + eta * dw

v_b = v_b + eta * db

self.w = self.w - v_w

self.b = self.b - v_b

self.append_log()

The main change in the code for NAG GD is that the computation of `v_w`

and `v_b`

. In Momentum GD, we are computing these variables in one step but in NAG we are doing it in two steps.

v_w = gamma * v_w

v_b = gamma * v_b

for x, y in zip(X, Y):

dw += self.grad_w(x, y, self.w - v_w, self.b - v_b)

db += self.grad_b(x, y, self.w - v_w, self.b - v_b)

v_w = v_w + eta * dw

v_b = v_b + eta * db

In the first part, before we iterate through the data, we will multiply the gamma with our history variables and then the gradient is computed by using the subtracted history value from `self.w`

and `self.b`

. To execute the NAG GD, we need just need to set the `algo`

variable to ‘NAG’. You can generate the 3D or 2D animations to see how the NAG GD is different from Momentum GD in reaching the global minima.

### Mini-Batch and Stochastic Gradient Descent

Instead of looking at all data points at one go, we will divide the entire data into a number of subsets. For each subset of data, compute the derivates for each of the point present in the subset and make an update to the parameters. Instead of calculating the derivative for entire data with respect to the loss function, we have approximated it to fewer points or smaller batch size. This method of computing gradients in batches is called the **Mini-Batch Gradient Descent**

The code for the Mini-Batch GD is given below,

for i in range(epochs):

dw, db = 0, 0

points_seen = 0

for x, y in zip(X, Y):

dw += self.grad_w(x, y)

db += self.grad_b(x, y)

points_seen += 1

if points_seen % mini_batch_size == 0:

self.w -= eta * dw / mini_batch_size

self.b -= eta * db / mini_batch_size

self.append_log()

dw, db = 0, 0

In Mini Batch, we are looping through the entire data and keeping track of the number of points we have seen by using a variable `points_seen`

. If the number of points seen is a multiple of mini-batch size then we are updating the parameters of the sigmoid neuron. In the special case when mini-batch size is equal to one, then it would become Stochastic Gradient Descent. To execute the Mini-Batch GD, we need just need to set the `algo`

variable to ‘MiniBatch’. You can generate the 3D or 2D animations to see how the Mini-Batch GD is different from Momentum GD in reaching the global minima.

### AdaGrad Gradient Descent

The main motivation behind the AdaGrad was the idea of Adaptive Learning rate for different features in the dataset, i.e. instead of using the same learning rate across all the features in the dataset, we might need different learning rate for different features.

The code for Adagrad is given below,

v_w, v_b = 0, 0

for i in range(epochs):

dw, db = 0, 0

for x, y in zip(X, Y):

dw += self.grad_w(x, y)

db += self.grad_b(x, y)

v_w += dw**2

v_b += db**2

self.w -= (eta / np.sqrt(v_w) + eps) * dw

self.b -= (eta / np.sqrt(v_b) + eps) * db

self.append_log()

In Adagrad, we are maintaining the running squared sum of gradients and then we update the parameters by dividing the learning rate with the square root of the historical values. Instead of having a static learning rate here we have dynamic learning for dense and sparse features. The mechanism to generate plots/animation remains the same as above. The idea here is to play with different toy datasets and different hyperparameter configurations.

### RMSProp Gradient Descent

In RMSProp history of gradients is calculated using an exponentially decaying average unlike the sum of gradients in AdaGrad, which helps to prevent the rapid growth of the denominator for dense features.

The code for RMSProp is given below,

v_w, v_b = 0, 0

for i in range(epochs):

dw, db = 0, 0

for x, y in zip(X, Y):

dw += self.grad_w(x, y)

db += self.grad_b(x, y)

v_w = beta * v_w + (1 - beta) * dw**2

v_b = beta * v_b + (1 - beta) * db**2

self.w -= (eta / np.sqrt(v_w) + eps) * dw

self.b -= (eta / np.sqrt(v_b) + eps) * db

self.append_log()

The only change we need to do in AdaGrad code is how we update the variables `v_w`

and `v_b`

. In AdaGrad `v_w`

and `v_b`

is always increasing by squares of the gradient per parameter wise since the first epoch but in RMSProp `v_w`

and `v_b`

is exponentially decaying weighted sum of gradients by using a hyperparameter called ‘gamma’. To execute the RMSProp GD, we need just need to set the `algo`

variable to ‘RMSProp’. You can generate the 3D or 2D animations to see how the RMSProp GD is different from AdaGrad GD in reaching the global minima.

### Adam Gradient Descent

Adam maintains two histories, ‘mₜ’ similar to the history used in Momentum GD and ‘vₜ’ similar to the history used in RMSProp.

In practice, Adam does something known as bias correction. It uses the following equations for ‘mₜ’ and ‘vₜ’,

Bias correction ensures that at the beginning of the training updates don’t behave in a weird manner. The key point in Adam is that it combines the advantages of Momentum GD (moving faster in gentle regions) and RMSProp GD (adjusting learning rate).

The code for Adam GD is given below,

v_w, v_b = 0, 0

m_w, m_b = 0, 0

num_updates = 0

for i in range(epochs):

dw, db = 0, 0

for x, y in zip(X, Y):

dw = self.grad_w(x, y)

db = self.grad_b(x, y)

num_updates += 1

m_w = beta1 * m_w + (1-beta1) * dw

m_b = beta1 * m_b + (1-beta1) * db

v_w = beta2 * v_w + (1-beta2) * dw**2

v_b = beta2 * v_b + (1-beta2) * db**2

m_w_c = m_w / (1 - np.power(beta1, num_updates))

m_b_c = m_b / (1 - np.power(beta1, num_updates))

v_w_c = v_w / (1 - np.power(beta2, num_updates))

v_b_c = v_b / (1 - np.power(beta2, num_updates))

self.w -= (eta / np.sqrt(v_w_c) + eps) * m_w_c

self.b -= (eta / np.sqrt(v_b_c) + eps) * m_b_c

self.append_log()

In Adam optimizer, we compute the `m_w & m_b`

to keep track of momentum history and `v_w & v_b`

which is used to decay the denominator and prevent its rapid growth just like in RMSProp. After that, we implement the bias correction for the Momentum based history variables and RMSProp based history variables. Once we compute the corrected values of the parameters ‘**w**’ and ‘**b**’, we will use those values to update the values of parameters.

To execute the Adam gradient descent algorithm change the configuration settings as shown below.

X = np.asarray([3.5, 0.35, 3.2, -2.0, 1.5, -0.5])

Y = np.asarray([0.5, 0.50, 0.5, 0.5, 0.1, 0.3])

algo = 'Adam'

w_init = -6

b_init = 4.0

w_min = -7

w_max = 5

b_min = -7

b_max = 5

epochs = 200

gamma = 0.9

eta = 0.5

eps = 1e-8

animation_frames = 20

plot_2d = True

plot_3d = False

The variable `algo`

is set to ‘Adam’ to indicate that we want to use the Adam GD for finding the best parameters for our sigmoid neuron and another important change is the `gamma`

variable, which is used to control how much momentum we need to impart into the learning algorithm. Gamma value varies between 0–1. After we set up our configuration parameters, we will go ahead and execute the *SN* class ‘fit’ method to train sigmoid neuron on toy data.

We can also create the 2D contour plot animation which shows how Adam GD is learning the path to global minima.

Unlike in the Case of RMSProp, we don’t have many oscillations instead we are moving more deterministically towards the minima especially after a first few epochs.

This brings to the end of our discussion on how to implement the optimization techniques using Numpy.

### What’s Next?

LEARN BY PRACTICING

In this article, we have seen different we have taken toy data set with static initialization points but what you can do is that take different initialization points and for each of these initialization points, play with different algorithms and see what kind of tuning needed to be done in hyperparameters.

The entire code discussed in the article is present in this GitHub repository. Feel free to fork it or download it. **The best part is that you can directly run the code in google colab, don’t need to worry about installing the packages**.

*PS: If you are interested in converting the code into* *R,**send me a message once it is done. I will feature your work here and also on the GitHub page.*

### Conclusion

In this post, we have seen how to implement different variants of gradient algorithm by taking a simple sigmoid neuron. Also, we have seen how to create beautiful 3D or 2D animation for each of these variants that show how the learning algorithm finds the best parameters.

*Recommended Reading*

In my next post, we will discuss different activation functions such as logistic, ReLU, LeakyReLU, etc… and some best initialization techniques like Xavier and He initialization. So make sure you follow me on medium to get notified as soon as it drops.

Until then Peace 🙂

NK.